Glossary of photographic terms


Aberration - a defect in a single lens or optical system (mirror, lens), causing deformation of the image, distortion of its shape, deterioration of sharpness, discoloration or misrepresentation of colors.

Chromatic aberration - a defect in the optical system consisting in different focusing distances of light of different wavelengths. As a result, there is a raggedness of light indicating that the bright parts on the dark background of the photo will have additional borders. To remove the defect, it is necessary to use apertures or lenses with opposite aberration.

Spherical aberration - a defect in the optical system, consisting in different lengths of focus of light rays between the center and edges of the optical device. To remove the defect, it is necessary to increase the aperture or lenses of the opposite aberration.

Adapter - a device whose purpose is to connect the lens bayonet to the M42 mount.

APSC - a type of matrix used in digital single-lens reflex cameras. The use of matrices of this format requires the use of lenses with a shorter focal length.

Autoexposure (AE) - the system responsible for automatically adjusting the aperture and exposure time to achieve the correct exposure.

Autofocus (AF) - a system that automatically focuses on one or more points in the image. When AF mode is on, just hold the shutter button halfway down and the camera will focus itself and lock the exposure.

Nude - is the representation of the naked human body or a part of it in art (painting, photography, graphics, sculpture, etc.) in a mysterious, sublime way, showing its natural beauty.

Anti-Shake - a sensor stabilization system built into the camera body that reduces any camera shake.

APO - Apochromatic, apochromatic correction, which makes the lens free of chromatic aberration. This defect is due to the different refractive index in the glass of light rays of different colors, resulting in the lack of sharpness at full aperture of the hood, visible in fixed-focal lenses. Using low dispersion lenses, the difference in refraction is negligible and the image is already sharp at either fully open aperture or slightly closed aperture.

APS - Advanced Photo System photographic film with an image frame size of 16×30 mm.

ASA - is the prototype of sensitivity grading standards developed by the American Standard Association - with identical parameters to what is referred to today as ISO.

Auto Exposure Bracketing (abbreviated AEB) - a modern photographic technique commonly referred to as bracketing, which involves automatically taking three exposures (underexposed, as indicated by the light meter, and overexposed) to obtain photographs with different levels of brightness. To make sure that at least one photo is correctly exposed in contrasting and difficult lighting conditions, the Bracketing method is used. In addition to correcting exposure parameters, AEB also takes into account changes in white balance. Professionals (photographer, retoucher) in order to get the optimum contrast in the whole photo in Photoshop overlap several differently lit photos, thus obtaining a satisfactory result.


F bayonet - is a 44mm diameter, three-bolt, 46.5mm focal length camera lens mounting system introduced in 1959. Today it is successfully used by Nikon.

K bayonet - this is a lens mount system introduced by Pentax in 1975, whose main advantage is its compatibility with the introduction of newer lenses.

White balance (WB) - tuning the camera for correct color reproduction. In modern cameras, you can find several presets that take into account lighting such as sunlight, fluorescent, neon, etc.

Batery check - an indicator of the battery charging level.

Blender - a reflective screen, used to reflect light in order to obtain adequate illumination of the photographed object. Blender also allows you to brighten the photographed arrangement and neutralize shadows. At home, you can achieve the same effect using a white sheet of paper, Styrofoam or aluminum foil. Wanting to achieve other effects, you can use a sheet of paper in other colors.

Bluetooth - an international standard for short-distance wireless communication (transmission of digital, voice data) between various electronic devices (e.g. computers, cell phones, cameras, ISDN cards, modems, etc.).

Bokeh - in photography is identified with the effect of blurring, reduced sharpness of objects beyond the depth of field.

Boom - is a lighting tripod (boom) commonly referred to as a "Crane" most often used in a photographic studio to mount studio lamps using an arm (usually telescopic) at the desired height above the subjects being photographed.

Brillant Color - a function responsible in projectors for displaying an image with increased brightness while maintaining a high color depth.

Bulb - a shutter speed fully controlled by the photographer from the moment the shutter button is pressed until it is released.

B&W - showing the beauty of photography in shades of black and white.


Camera obscura - the prototype of the photographic camera also called optical darkroom or pinhole camera. It is the simplest camera consisting of a light-proof box and a pinhole. The light that falls through the hole creates an inverted image of the photographed object on the opposite wall of the box.

CCD - Charge Coupled Device is a type of photosensitive matrix used in digital cameras and other imaging devices. Depending on the intensity level of light rays, incident on individual sensors, an electric current is activated, transforming into a digital signal.

Spotting scope viewfinder - completely independent of the biexis optical system that allows you to view the photographed scenery. However, it has a basic disadvantage, which is due to the lack of parallelism of the axes of the viewfinder and the lens and namely the parallax error, which differentiates the image observed from many different locations and planes.

Mirror viewfinder - a system that uses a moving mirror placed in the camera at a 45-degree angle behind the lens. During photography, the image reproduced by the lens goes through the mirror to the eye of the observer. When the shutter is activated, the mirror rises and the image is captured on film. This is the best observation system, as it represents the real state and, most importantly, there are no parallax errors in this sestem.

An optical viewfinder - also known as a viewfinder or telescope - is a component of a camera's optical system that allows the photographer to get a sneak peek of the frame before taking a picture.

CF - (Compact Flash) - the first Flash card introduced in 1994 by SanDisk Corporation for data transfer. One of the advantages of this card is the speed of data transfer and an interface identical to the IDE interface used for disk drives.

CMOS - Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor - a mode of light-sensitive matrix used in digital cameras, SLR cameras, webcams. Canon used CMOS in the EOS series of cameras due to the fact that they have very good color rendering, and lower noise compared to CCDs, and the ability to operate at higher sensitivities.

CMYK - the abbreviation for the four basic colors used in the printing process, i.e. Cyan (turquoise), Magenta (purple), Yellow (yellow), Black (black).

Custom function - custom settings defined by the camera user.

Exposure time - one of the parameters of the exposure triangle, which can be adjusted in manual mode. This is the time during which the shutter remains exposed to light. The longer the exposure time, the brighter the photo will be.

Cross sensor - an autofocus sensor in a digital camera consisting of two linear sensors, which allows them to detect light vertically as well as horizontally.

Sensitivity (ISO) - this is a parameter that determines the sensitivity of the matrix to light. The higher it is, the greater the susceptibility to light. It is one of the parameters of the exposure triangle next to aperture and shutter speed. The lowest sensitivity is ISO 100, the upper limit is at 3200 to 12800 and sometimes happens more.


Long-focus lens - this is any lens whose focal length is longer than the diameter of the image created. Most often it is used to make close-ups of the photographed object. A long-focus lens is one whose focal length exceeds 60 mm.

Tracker - is a mechanism in the camera that allows you to track moving subjects and take continuous shots of them with the focus correctly set. Most commonly used in reportage photography.

Double Exposure - is a photographic technique that combines two different photos into one image.

DPI (Dots Per Inch) - in photography, it's a unit of measurement for digital files that determines how many pixels will fill an inch of each side of a photo.

DSLR - Digital Single Lens Reflex Camera - is a type of single-lens reflex camera, in which the role of light-sensitive material is played by a CCD or CMOS light sensor. Once, cameras of this type were intended only for professionals. With the passage of time and a reduction in production costs, they are now a very popular SLR among amateur photographers.

Diffuser-is a type of accessory used in photography to reflect, and disperse the light stream. The use of a diffuser allows you to evenly illuminate the scene, remove the red-eye effect, smooth and bring out the three-dimensionality of the image, and improve colors. It can come in the form of a small cap on the built-in lamp (cap diffuser) or a thin material (softbox).

Distortion - a defect in the optical system, causing significant distortion of the image, bending of lines, etc. It takes the forms of:

  • barrel - it is visible in wide-angle zoom or so-called fisheye lenses.

  • Pincushion - can be seen in zoom lenses.


Photo editor - is a program that is used to improve / alter photos. The most popular among professional photographers is PS (or Photoshop).

E-TTL - the system used by Canon to measure the amount of flash light through the lens.

EEPROM - (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory) a type of non-volatile computer memory that, as the name suggests, can be written to repeatedly. It is designed to store a small amount of data.

Red-eye effect - occurs in images of people photographed in the dark with the flash close to the lens axis. It is caused by the direct reflection of the flash light beam from the retina. This effect can be freely reduced in any photo editor.

Exposure (sk. EV Export Value) - the amount of light, falling on the matrix during exposure. The correct setting of exposure parameters is influenced by the lighting of the place, the choice of ISO, exposure time and aperture, the so-called exposure triangle.

Focal length equivalent - (also called focal length multiplier) is the value that is obtained by multiplying the focal length of a given lens by the conversion factor given for the matrix of the digital camera in which this lens is mounted. In this way, you can compare the viewing angles of different matrices for the same lens.

EV - Exposure Value - is a unit of measurement and scale of photographic exposure. The EV number tells you the amount of light. Low EV values mean a small amount of light, high EV values mean a large amount of light which translates into exposure time and aperture.

Exif - a type of metadata, contained in the header of a JPEG file about the parameters of the photo taken, i.e. the type of camera, lens focal length, exposure, white balance, the author of the photo, and the date and size of the file.

Exposure Modes - this is the exposure mode.


f (f/stop) - with a lowercase "f" we specify the aperture value, such as f/2.8 or f/3.2-5.6. This means that the aperture on the lens can be opened to a maximum of 2.8.

FEB - the term for exposure compensation.

FEC - the term for flash power compensation.

Fill - in - this is the flash mode, whose main task is to illuminate the subject with consideration of the light found.

Low Pass Filter - (Optical Low Pass Filter, OLPF) also called anti-aliasing filter is part of many digital cameras and is located directly in front of the photosensitive sensor, whose task is to cut off the information contained in the high frequencies of the image, so that it is possible to reduce the occurrence of moiré effect and color distortion caused by high-frequency waves. As a result, the low-pass filter prevents the phenomenon of aliasing, or image stepping.

Effect filters - these are filters used in creative photography. They include infrared filters, night filters, macro lenses, or different variants of softening filters used in portrait photography, creating a slight glow around the bright areas of the photo and an overall decrease in the sharpness of the photograph.

Polarizing filter - is one of the most popular optical modifications, used by product and landscape photographers. The former use it for the purpose for which it was created, i.e. to cancel reflections arising on glassy, shiny, reflective (non-metallic) surfaces, such as glass; the latter use it to increase contrast. The technical operation of a polarizing filter is to partially absorb polarized light (scattered in the atmosphere). In landscape photography, its action can be compared to the effect achieved by a red filter in black and white photos. The filter's effect is strongest when the sun is at a 90-degree angle to the scene being photographed. The polarizing filter also enhances the color saturation of non-transparent objects, that is, objects through which light does not pass, such as fabrics and plants. It is one of the most important filters in every photographer's toolbox. Properly used, it will do an excellent job of suppressing unwanted glare, flare or overdrawn surfaces, as well as color saturation.

Gray filters - limit the amount of light reaching the lens, while allowing you to extend the exposure time using the same aperture and sensitivity settings. They come in versions with different degrees of darkness, extending the exposure by a certain value. They are especially recommended in conditions where our camera does not allow us to get the required exposure.

Skylight filters - have a slightly pink tint. They can be used for light color correction and saturation, and also as protective filters. They impart a slightly pinkish tint, lowering the color temperature a bit. Thus, they impart a more pleasant, warmer color to photos taken at midday with an unclouded sky. They also reduce UV radiation and are widely used in portrait and landscape photography.

UV filter - inhibits the ingress of ultraviolet rays that are harmful to photosensitive material, which under certain conditions (e.g., above 1,500 meters above sea level) can cause an unfavorable bluish coloration of photos and a general decrease in contrast. It is recommended especially when working in the open and with traditional analog photosensitive materials.

UV filters do not have a visible effect when shooting under normal conditions, however, despite this, they are still the most popular group of filters, used as an element of mechanical protection for the front lens, while not affecting the range of visible light.

Photo filter - this is a flat transparent or partially transparent cap applied to the lens, changing the appearance of the photographed image, usually applied to the front of the lens, and if this is not possible - to the back of the lens (for example, in mirror or widest lenses).

Half filters - allow you to achieve two different exposure levels for separate areas of the photo. They are used, for example, to avoid overexposure of the sky, while maintaining proper exposure of landscape elements below the horizon line.

Flare - an optical effect that appears in the image due to the interaction of light rays with the lenses of an objectwu, camera or camcorder when the lens is directed at a light source (such as the sun). It is most often seen in the form of translucent different colored circles.

Flash (Flash) - otherwise known as a flash. A device used to illuminate the photographed scene with a brief but very intense flash of light in coordination with the camera shutter.

Flatlay - shooting from the top of an arranged composition of a photo (also known as from a bird's eye view).

Analog photography - is photography in which the image carrier is light-sensitive materials - such as negatives, slides. Lovers of this type of photography are especially people who appreciate the "atmosphere" of the photo. Taking an analog photo is a long process, in which it is not possible to see the photos and their number is small and each shot is usually very well thought out. The subsequent development of the photos requires a lot more work than a digital photo and is usually not retouched later due to the very difficult retouching process.

Digital photography - unlike analog photography, this is an easy, fast and inexpensive way of shooting, since the images are stored on a memory card. They can be previewed at any stage - if they fail to delete, and in its place take another one without worrying about lack of space. Digital photo processing and retouching are not as complicated as with analog photography.


Geotagging of photos - is the addition of geographical coordinates to the photos taken. This feature is especially useful for travelers who want to show off the place where the photos were taken.

GIF - is a short, several-second moving graphic, an animation. Thanks to compression, it is lighter than a video by which it loads faster on websites. It can be created in photo processing programs (such as PhotoScape) or in applications developed just for making GIF animations.

Depth of field - in photography, it is a parameter used to determine the range of distance in which objects observed by the camera appear sharp (that is, having clear, unblurred contours).The parameter that determines the range of focus. The easiest way to control this parameter is to change the aperture value: the larger the value, the more the focus range increases. The following table illustrates well the effect of aperture on the depth of field.

3D head - with the help of 3 planes, i.e. tilting the head vertically - front / back, sideways - left / right and around its own axis - rotation. provides photographers with fast and precise positioning of the camera. 3D head is great for product photography, when we already have an established frame and we just need to slightly tilt the equipment in relation to the photographed object.

Ball head - is one of the most popular and versatile heads due to its lightweight, durable and fast operation (changing the frame or position of the equipment). Useful especially in reportage or nature photography when you quickly want to change the frame and lock the head in a given position.

Pistol head - with the push of a button, you can quickly change the position of the equipment.

Video head - this is a head designed for filming with not only a camcorder, but also with photogradic cameras and cell phones, allowing smooth guidance and stable shots, without any movement and vibration.

Hot shoe - is a small bracket located on the camera body that allows you to mount an additional external flash.


HDR - (High Dynamic Range Image) is a photography technique that involves taking several images of the same shot, using different exposure parameters and then superimposing them on each other, thus obtaining a very wide tonal range

Hyperfocal distance - in other words, it is twice the distance, measured from the camera or camcorder, at which the focus is set to obtain the greatest possible depth of field, that is, the space in which objects appear sharp.

Histogram - is a very helpful tool for any photographer, because it is a graphical representation of the distribution of lights and shadows in the photo indicating how many elements from black (left edge of the histogram) to white (right end) have been recorded in the photo. Its axes allow you to see at which points in the photo there are so-called "overexposure" or underexposure.

Hot pixels - (hot pixels/still pixels) is the bane of all night photography enthusiasts who use long exposures. They are visible on the photo as small different colored bright dots, which can be successfully removed in a photo editing program.


I-TTL - Nikon's system for measuring the image and adjusting the flash power so that the entire frame is balanced.

Integral exposure measurement - is the oldest measurement, whose task is to average the brightness of the entire scene.

Pixel interpolation - is a process aimed at creating a new, previously non-existent pixel based on neighboring pixels in such a way that it is the best possible optical match to the transformed image.

IS Image Stabilizer - is a dial function on the camera responsible for image stabilization.

ISO - otherwise known as sensitivity. This is a parameter that determines the sensitivity of the matrix to light. The higher it is, the greater the susceptibility to light. It is one of the parameters of the exposure triangle next to aperture and shutter speed. The lowest sensitivity is ISO 100, the upper limit is at 3200 to 12800 and sometimes happens more.


Lens brightness - is a measure of the amount of light transmitted through the lens into the camera.

JPG / JPEG - the most popular graphic file format among amateur photographers. It combines fairly good image quality with a small size. It is a compressed file, which is characterized by smooth color transitions and few sharp edges. JPG files can be edited only slightly.


Memory cards - these are usually small, thin and inconspicuous devices used for storing data.

Lens angle - in photography, it is the angle contained between the most extreme rays of light entering the camera, which are recorded by the camera.

Compact - this is the common name for pocket cameras due to their size and weight.

Image compression - is the reduction of the size of image files by reducing their volume.

Contrast - is the difference or opposite of the frame components between two juxtaposed image components or phenomena concerning color, shape or texture.

Conversion - is the performance by the photographer of a specific change, such as file format.

Exposure correction - this is a change in the camera's light metering.

Scatter circle - in photography is a parameter used to determine the acceptable sharpness of an image.


Flash - (Flash, flash) - it is a device used to illuminate the photographed scene with a brief but very intense flash of light in coordination with the camera shutter.

Dedicated flash - this is a flash recommended for a particular camera model.

Ring flash - these are an invaluable light source often used by makeup artists for makeup portrait photography, and in macro photography.

LED - LEDs are an efficient electric light source with excellent light direction and color reproduction.

Guide number - (LP from Guide Number GN) also known as the estimated number, is the product of the distance of the flash from the illuminated object and the value of the aperture, such that the photo is correctly exposed assuming a sensitivity of 100 ISO.

Live View - a digital camera feature that allows you to preview a photo, on the LCD screen.

LR - an abbreviation for Adobe's Lightroom program for advanced processing and editing of photos obtained with digital cameras.

DSLR - this is a camera equipped with a mirror and a matte, allowing accurate presentation of the current frame. This is the type of cameras that totally dominate the modern photographic market, which will not soon be replaced by mirrorless cameras despite, their thriving development.

Twin Lens Reflex Camera - TLR - is a camera equipped with two lenses, a fixed mirror and a matrix.

Single Lens Reflex (SLR ) - (SLR, Single Lens Reflex) - is a camera equipped with a single lens and a movable mirror that reflects the light from the lens onto the matte, allowing you to view the picture you have taken.


M42 - this is the oldest way of attaching lenses in cameras to a 42 x 1 thread once used in popular cameras such as Praktica, Zenit, Ricoh and many others. Lenses of this standard are very widespread and are still produced. Through adapters, they can also be mounted to some cameras with bayonet.

Macro photography - is a field of photography in which the photographed object is reproduced in a much larger size.

Manual - this is the manual setting of camera parameters.

Manual exposure - one of the shooting modes, often labeled "M", which allows you to set all the exposure parameters yourself, such as ISO, shutter speed and aperture.

Dead pixels - (hot pixel) small different colored bright spots, which can be successfully removed in an image editing program.

Matte - is a semi-transparent material used in a camera, in the form of a flat glass plate with one side matted to diffuse light.

Photosensitive matrix - is an array of multiple photosensitive elements that convert the image falling through the lens into an electrical signal, used in digital cameras.

Micro SD - this is a small, thin memory card used for storing data.

Shutter - is a part of the camera used to expose for a suitable time and then cover back the light-sensitive material (or optoelectronic sensor) in order to expose it correctly, that is, to provide the right amount of incident light through the lens.

Monopod - the simplest and also the most popular type of photo tripod, consisting of only one leg, stabilizing the camera completely in one vertical plane.

Editing - an advanced combination of different techniques to best show a photograph or video with special effects.

Eyecup - a rubber cap on the viewfinder of the camera that increases the comfort of the photographer, because thanks to it he has only the frame in his field of view, and he can hold the camera itself a little more comfortably - not pressing it against the eye as much. This is especially useful in strong backlighting and with a bright camera housing.


Caps - cap s mounted on the camera body.

Underexposure - is caused by an incorrectly set exposure, when too little light fell on the camera's sensor; an underexposed photograph is very dark and is characterized by a lack of visibility of details in the picture.


Lens - a component (e.g., alens, optical or magnetic system) that collects and transfers an image to photographic film, the photosensitive matrix of a digital camera, or the matrix of a camera.

Fisheye lens - is an ultra-wide-angle lens that has a very wide angle of view and large image distortion due to uncorrected distortion.

Portrait lens - the most popular lenses among photographers for beauty shots.

Varifocal lens - (commonly known as zoom) - a lens in which it is possible to smoothly adjust the focal length, usually without changing the plane of focus.

Fixed focal length lenses - (colloquially fixed) - a type of lens in which the focal length, unlike zoom lenses, is fixed. The most common fixed focal length lens in photography is a 50mm lens, commonly known as a standard lens.

Wide-angle lenses - a photographic lens that has a very wide angle of view with a focal length shorter than the longer edge of the negative used, for small-format cameras in the range of 35 mm - 16 mm. It allows photographing large subjects from short distances.

Minimum distance - the smallest possible distance of the lens from the photographed object, which will allow the object in question to be included in the field of focus. For macro lenses, the minimum distance can be, for example, 1cm, and for telephoto lenses 150cm.

Focal length of the lens - in photography it is a parameter that determines the angle of view of the lens. Focal length is expressed in millimeters (mm); we distinguish between fixed-focus lenses (e.g. 50mm, 85mm) and zoom lenses, i.e. zoom lenses, e.g. 24-70mm, 16-24mm. The smaller the number, the wider the angle of view.

Sunshade - jes is a component that is applied to the lens to nullify the access of the sun's rays to the lens. Ultimately, the hood (most often in the form of a plastic tulip) protects the photo from unwanted flare, blips and contrast drop.


Panning - is a technique for dynamically capturing motion with a sharp subject of the photo and a smoothly blurred background.

Parallax - otherwise known as the effect of incompatibility of different photos of the same object observed from different perspectives.

Perspective - is the position of the photographer or camera in relation to the subject being photographed.

Intermediate rings - are sleeves used, among other things, in macro photography, whose main task is to increase the distance of the lens from the photographic film. Thanks to their use, the minimum shooting distance is reduced, thus increasing the reproduction scale. In practice, this results in an image on the film that is similar in size to the subject photographed or magnified compared to the original. The lens is often additionally rotated 180 degrees to improve optical quality.

Reverse mount ring - an adapter that allows you to attach the lens to the body with the reverse side, so that a standard lens turns into a macro lens. You can buy a reverse mount ring on allegro or in stores with accessories for photographers. Read more about a cheap way to go macro.

Light metering - Light metering - is essential for correct exposure. In modern SLR cameras, it is carried out with the help of an internal light meter in the so-called TTL mode, i.e. measuring through the lens.

Predictive Focus Control - this is a function in the camera that allows you to get sharp pictures of moving objects.

Shutter speed preselection (shutter speed priority) - automatically selects the aperture to the selected time.

Aperture preselection (aperture priority) - is a semi-automatic camera mode on the PASM setting wheel available on all SLR cameras and most compact or mirrorless cameras. Its task is to automatically select the correct shutter speed for a specific aperture.

Overexposure (overexposure) - an error involving overexposure of a photo. It occurs due to incorrectly set exposure.

Aperture (f stop) - is the physical opening in the lens, which directly affects the amount of light, entering the camera (on the sensor). Every lens, even those built into the phone, has a specific aperture range.

PS - an abbreviation for Adobe's Photoshop program for advanced raster processing and editing of images obtained with digital cameras, available for Windows and macOS platforms.

Nodal point (nodal point) - is such a point inside the lens, where all light rays passing through the lens and forming the image intersect. When taking pictures for spherical panorama, the camera should be rotated exactly around this point both horizontally and vertically.


RA (CRI) - or Color Reproduction Index - indicates the extent to which a given light source reflects the true state of colors, that is, how perfectly the colors of the illuminated objects will be reproduced.

RAW - RAW (English for "raw") files, allow you to preserve the highest image quality offered by the camera, while giving you the ability to accurately process the file on your computer. The RAW format is characterized by a large tonal range and lack of compression, making the file bulkier.

Red-eye reduction - occurs in photos of people photographed in the dark with the flash close to the lens axis. This effect can be freely reduced in any photo editor.

RGB - is an abbreviation that comes from the first letters of English color names:

R - red (red),

G - green

B - blue (blue)

describing the color space model.

Resolution - conversion of pixels to photo size.

Tonal range - is the difference between the brightest and darkest points of the photographed scene. In simple terms, the greater the difference between the brightest clear image and the darkest, the greater the tonal range.

Rycote - Shock absorption system. Prevents unwanted vibrations from being transmitted to the microphone.


Self-timer - a device built into the camera (often also in the phone), with which you can set a delay in the shutter release, taking a picture with a delay.

SD - short for memory card from SanDisk.

Photosensitive sensor (light-sensitive matrix) - is an array of multiple photosensitive elements that convert the image falling through the lens into an electrical signal, used in digital cameras.

Sepia - converting color photos to black and white, or giving them a noble sepia color (brown) this procedure is used, for example, when the colors of the photo are uninteresting and cannot be improved, or when you want to give the photo a "vintage" type look.

Kelvin scale - the temperature of a light source that determines the color of the emitted light, in photography the temperature is measured and expressed in degrees on the Kelvin scale. The lower the value on the Kelvin scale, the warmer the color temperature. A burning candle (orange colored light) is about 1000K, while sunlight is 7000K and lightning is as high as 17000K. Color temperature is closely related to white balance.

Solarization - is the phenomenon of partial or complete reversal of a negative image into a positive one.

Image stabilizer - this is a device that reduces the effect of shaking hands during photography.

Tripod - is a fixed stabilizer used to mount a camera or movie camera.

Light meter - this is a built-in camera body, whose task is to measure the intensity of light, allowing you to select the correct exposure parameters of photosensitive material.

Matrix noise - these are spots appearing in areas of solid color, resulting from setting the ISO sensitivity too high.

Quick release - is a part of the head that allows you to quickly detach / attach the camera or camcorder to the tripod head.


Teleconverter - is an assembly of lenses attached between the camera and the lens or on the lens, in order to enlarge the central part of the image fed by the photographic lens.

Telephoto lens - is a type of narrow-angle photographic lens, whose unique optical design has a focal distance significantly greater than the length of its housing. When thinking of this lens, many people imagine animal and landscape photography.

Color temperature - is a temperature scale measured in degrees Kelvin (K) that allows you to evaluate light from different sources.

TIFF - graphic file format, is used to save raster graphics. It reproduces the image more faithfully than a JPG file, but it also takes up much more space. It allows saving multi-page documents and lossless editing of photos (which cannot be said of JPG files).

TTL (Through The Lens) - is the measurement and control of flash light through the lens.

Aperture mode - a mode in which the photographer selects the aperture at which he wants to take the picture, while the camera automatically selects the exposure time.

Auto mode - a mode in which the camera automatically sets the parameters for the correct exposure. The photographer can only change the resolution of the images and the focal length.

Bulb mode - a shooting mode in which the shutter is open as long as the trigger is pressed.

M mode (manual shooting mode) - a mode for manual setting of shooting parameters.

P (Programmable) mode - a semi-automatic mode in which the aperture and shutter speed are selected automatically by the camera, while the photographer has control over other parameters, depending on the camera's level of sophistication, these may include white balance, flash on/off, autofocus area, light metering area, etc.

S/T mode - a mode in which the photographer selects the exposure time at which he wants to take the picture, while the camera automatically selects the aperture


Optical system - an assembly of two or more optical elements involved in the formation of an image in an optical instrument. Depending on the design of the optical system, light can pass through or reflect off its individual elements.


Viewfinder (viewfinder/target ) - is the part of the optical instrument used to define the boundaries of the frame, and allowing you to select and determine the subject of the photo.

VR (Vibration Reduction) - is an innovative system that reduces shake, and any blurring of the image caused by camera movement.


Trigger snake - is a device used to remotely actuate the shutter of a camera, used to eliminate camera movement resulting from directly pressing the shutter button on the camera housing.

Widget - in English functions as a synonym for gadget. It was first used to name elements of the graphical user interface.

Vignetting - is a defect in the image obtained in an optical device consisting in underexposure of the edges of the frame, caused by imperfections in the optics of the device, interference with the edges of the optical path by other elements of the device, or caused by inadequate lighting.

Color Rendering Index - Ra (CRI) has a maximum value of 100. It carries information about the extent to which a given light source reflects the true colors, that is, how perfectly the colors of the illuminated objects will be reproduced. The scale of the coefficient is between 0 and 100, where 0 is monochromatic light, i.e. containing only one color, and 100 is daylight, i.e. sunlight.

Color Reproduction Index - The Color Reproduction Index - Ra (CRI) indicates the extent to which a given light source reflects the true state of colors, that is, how perfectly the colors of the illuminated objects will be reproduced.


XD (Extreme Digital) - is a flash memory card used mainly in Olympus and Fujifilm digital cameras.


Tonal range - indicates the number of distinguishable levels between the brightest and darkest recorded shade of the image.

Continuous shooting - a feature on the camera that captures pictures again and again, as long as the shutter button is pressed all the way down.

Zoom - focal length variation.

Digital zoom - is a simulation of the change of focal length. It causes the camera to enlarge the digital image captured on the matrix. Often this magnification causes a deterioration in image quality.

Optical zoom - indicates how many times we can increase the focal length in a zoom lens. By changing the focal length, we also change the angle of view of the lens.